Class 7 Science Chapter 2 Notes

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Class 7 Science Chapter 2 Notes

Chapter Name: - Nutrition in Animals

Class 7 Science Chapter 2 Notes

Section - A (Keywords)

Explain the following Keywords

passing of food into the blood vessels in the wall of the intestine after digestion.

the intestinal juice breaks the proteins presented in our food into amino acids.

Explanation:-

The intestinal juice of the small intestine breaks the food components into products of digestion while completing the process of digestion. The protein presented in our food is broken into amino acids.

A microscopic single-celled organism found in pond water.

using digested food materials to build complex substances such as proteins by the different organs of the body is called assimilation.

A juice secreted by the liver that plays a vital role in the digestion of fats.

the beginning point of the continuous canal for the passage of food in our body.

teeth between the incisors and premolar in the teeth-arrangement.

A type of carbohydrate.

Explanation: –

Many animals including humans cannot digest cellulose because certain bacterias that help in digestion of the cellulose are not present in the human body.

The division of complex components of food into simpler substances.

The removal of the faecal matter through the anus from time to time.

the intestinal juice breaks the fat presented in our food into fatty acids.

The circular membrane used for the storage of food by the amoeba.

A sac for the storage of bile juice.

the intestinal juice breaks the fat presented in our food into glycerol and fatty acids.

A set of four teeth in front of the mouth.

The process of taking food into the body.

The largest gland in the body situated in the upper part of the abdomen on the right side.

The first set of teeth, that grows during infancy and falls off before the age of eight years.

Large teeth at the back of the mouth used to grind food.

The second set of teeth that replaces the milk teeth and may last throughout life.

the food pipe for the passage of swallowed food.

A large cream-colored gland located just below the stomach that secres the pancreatic juice.

Set of teeth located between the molar and canine teeth.

the finger-like projections in the amoeba. It is also called the false feet and is used for the movement and capture of the food.

a part of the stomach used for storing food in the grass-eating animals.

the animals that have the rumen (a part of the stomach used for storing food)

the process of chewing the partially digested food that returned to the mouth of grass-eating animals in small lumps.

a gland located in the mouth that secrets saliva.

thousands of finger-like outgrowths in the inner wall of the small intestine. It increases the surface area for the absorption of the digestive food.

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Class 7 Science Chapter 2 Notes

Section - B (Text Questions - Answer)

Question 1

Fill in the blanks:

(a) The main steps of nutrition in humans are ingestion, digestion, absorption, assimilation, and egestion.

(b) The largest gland in the human body is liver.

(c) The stomach releases hydrochloric acid and digestive juices which act on food.

(d) The inner wall of the small intestine has many finger-like outgrowths called villi.

(e) Amoeba digests its food in the food vacuole.

Question 3

Tick mark the correct answer in each of the following:

(a) Fat is completely digested in the
(i) stomach (ii) mouth (iii) small intestine (iv) large intestine

(a) Fat is completely digested in the (iii) small intestine

(b) Water from the undigested food is absorbed mainly in the
(i) stomach (ii) foodpipe (iii) small intestine (iv) large intestine

(b) Water from the undigested food is absorbed mainly in the (iv) large intestine

Question 4

Match the items of Column I with those given in Column II:

Column I Column II
Food componentsProduct(s) of digestion
CarbohydratesFatty acids and glycerol
ProteinsSugar
FatsAmino acids

 

Column I Column II
Food componentsProduct(s) of digestion
CarbohydratesSugar 
ProteinsAmino acids
FatsFatty acids and glycerol

 

Question 5

What are villi? What are their location and function?

Villi are the thousands of finger-like outgrowths located at the inner wall of the small intestine.

Function:

The villi increase the surface area for absorption of the digested food. Each villus has a network of thin and small blood vessels. The surface of the villi absorbs the digested food materials that are transported to different organs via the blood vessels. Here they are used to build complex substances required by the body.

Question 6

Where is the bile produced? Which component of the food does it help to digest?

The bile is stored in the gall bladder and is produced inside the liver.

Bile helps to digest the fat present in our food.

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Class 7 Science Chapter 2 Notes

Question 7

Name the type of carbohydrate that can be digested by ruminants but not by humans. Give the reason also.

Cellulose is a type of carbohydrate that can be digested by ruminants but not by humans. 

Reason:

The cellulose of the food is digested in a large sac-like structure called Caecum by the action of the certain bacteria which are not present in humans.

Question 8

Why do we get instant energy from glucose?

The carbohydrates get broken into simple sugars such as glucose by the intestinal juice.

As glucose is a simple sugar, it breaks down with the help of oxygen into carbon dioxide and water easily and releases energy instantly.

Question 9

Which part of the digestive canal is involved in:

(i) absorption of food ________________.

(i) absorption of food small intestine.

(ii) chewing of food ________________.

(ii) chewing of food buccal cavity.

(iii) killing of bacteria ________________.

(iii) killing of bacteria stomach.

(iv) complete digestion of food ________________.

(iv) complete digestion of food small intestine.

(v) formation of faeces ________________.

(v) formation of faeces large intestine.

Question 10

Write one similarity and one difference between nutrition in amoeba and human beings.

Similarity:

The basic process of digestion of food and the release of energy is the same in humans and amoeba. Such as:

ingestion of food,

breaking it into simpler substances,

using it for the energy, growth, and maintenance of the body,

and finally expelling out the undigested residue of the food.

Difference:

Amoeba engulfs the food with the help of pseudopodia called false feet. It traps and digests the food in the food vacuole. Whereas in humans the ingestion of food starts by taken it inside the mouth. The human digestive system consists of the alimentary canal and secondary glands. It consists of a complex structure with many parts and digestive glands.

Question 11

Match the items of Column I with suitable items in Column II.

Column I Column II
(a) Salivary gland(i) Bile juice secretion
(b) Stomach(ii) Storage of undigested food
(c) Liver(iii) Saliva secretion
(d) Rectum(iv) Acid release
(e) Small intestine(v) Digestion is completed
(f ) Large intestine(vi) Absorption of water
 (vii) Release of faeces
Column I Column II
(a) Salivary gland(iii) Saliva secretion 
(b) Stomach (iv) Acid release
(c) Liver(i) Bile juice secretion
(d) Rectum(vii) Release of faeces
(e) Small intestine(v) Digestion is completed
(f ) Large intestine(vi) Absorption of water, (ii) Storage of undigested food

 

Question 12

Label Fig. 2.11 of the digestive system.

digestive system - Question
digestive system
Digestive system - Answer
Digestive system – Name of the parts

Question 13

Can we survive only on raw, leafy vegetables/ grass? Discuss.

No, we can not survive only on raw, leafy vegetables/ grass. In these leafy vegetables/ grass, a type of carbohydrate called cellulose is present. Cellulose can be digested by the ruminant animals but not humans. The cellulose of these foods is digested in a large sac-like structure called Caecum by the action of the certain bacteria which are not present in humans.

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Class 7 Science Chapter 2 Notes

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